Ekologiya və torpaqşünaslıq fakültəsi
September 16 is the day of conservation of ozone layer

Ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet rays, and hinders them from entering the earth surface. The role of “anthropogenic factor” in separation of ozone layer is mostly discussed as a danger source in scientific spheres. The amount of ozone destructive substances is increasing due to human economic activities.
The highest rate of ozone composition is reported in Canada, Northern Europe and part of Russia next to the Arctic connected with active air flow towards poles. Ozone concentration on middle latitudes remains in high level until starry summer. Existence of such a meteorological condition and chemical active chlorine in large amount trigger destruction of ozone layer on the Antarctic continent. The reliable organizations e.g. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA, World Meteorological Organization, as well as numerous organizations of Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand and etc. countries are regularly engaged in observation of ozone layer. Disintegration of ozone layer causes elimination of planktons, flora and fauna in equatorial zone, collapse of ocean biogenesis, increase of eye diseases and cancer, as well as emergence of various maladies as a result of prostration of human and animal immune system. In spite of the fact that high rate of total amount of ozone on stratosphere has vital effectiveness, growth of ozone quantity on troposphere is considered harmful for living organism. The National Water and Atmosphere Research Institute of New Zealand observed global decrease of stratosphere ozone – ozone layer on Antarctic roughly since 1970. According to the observations the measures of the very low rate concentrated zone of ozone layer occurred on Antarctic were recently commensurate with the area of African continent. Abatement of total amount of ozone brings about thaw of glaciers, but on the other hand increase of average yearly temperature on the Earth within the last centenary up to 0.8 degree created the issue of “Global warming”. The level of ocean waters mushroomed nearly 15-17 cm in the last centennial period due to the acceleration of the tempo of thaw of glaciers as a result of increase of ultraviolet radiation fallen to the Earth. In January 1982, the United Nations Environment Programmer (UNEP) held the first consultation of special legal and technical experts group for the purpose of establishment of the project of “Global Convention on conservation of ozone layer”. The World Meteorological Organization played a great role in preparation of comprehensive scientific precis of the problem and determination of principal bases for the Convention. The Convention was adopted in Vienna after 3 year active negotiations in March 1985. It was mentioned in article 21 of the Convention that every country is obliged to implement measures directed to protection of human health derived from impacts of destruction of ozone layer. On September 1987 historical Protocol on substances collapsing ozone layer was signed in Montreal city, which included measures of regulation of abatement of production and utilization of substances eliminating ozone layer stage by stage.
The Republic of Azerbaijan as an independent state joined the leading countries of the world, passed a law on ratification of the Vienna Convention (1985) on conservation of ozone layer which is worldwide environmental problem, Montreal Protocol (1987), London (1990), Copenhagen (1992) and Montreal amendments (1997). After ratification process many projects were carried out on taking of ozone destructing substances out of use utilized at the “Chinar” fridge, and Sumgayit compressor factories, as well as fire extinguishing offices, restoration and re-use of refrigeratory agents considered ozone destructing substances used in different industrial spheres and in public, training of instructors and technicians in this field, and strengthening of organizational structures for implementation of the Montreal Protocol under the auspices of the UNEP and UNDP. The Republic of Azerbaijan supports all endeavors of the international community on conservation of ozone layer and tries to carry out its commitments systematically accepted in accordance with international agreement. Our country attends events taken place by the international community on taking several ozone destructive substances out of use and prevention of those substances from discharging to the atmosphere. In 2008 suggestion was forwarded to the project on getting ozonometer to the United Nations Environment Programmer (UNEP), Global Environment Fund (GEF) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for the purpose of implementation of sustainable observation of ozone layer. In 2010 office facilities were installed and local network was established in Ozone Center within the framework of the regional technical project of “Advancement of activities on conservation of ozone layer in Eastern European and Central Asian countries”. Activities are continued within the project. Project activities started in the beginning of 2015. The Republic of Azerbaijan will carry out its obligations regarding this sphere and will contribute global settlement of the problem by participating at future purported events.


“Green Marathon”

The “Green Marathon”, initiated by Vice-President of Heydar Aliyev Foundation, and founder of IDEA Public Union Mrs. Leyla Aliyeva, was launched on November 5, 201

Current condition in the rivers of the Republic and in the transboundary rivers

According to the National Department of Hydrometeorology of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, currently, water richness holds 40-100% of decade norm in Quba-Khachmaz region rivers of Major Caucasus, 30-80% in Minor Caucasus rivers, 65-95% in Lankaran-Astara region rivers

Project of Rehabilitation of Absheron Lakes

To provide sustainability  in the rehabilitation of Absheron lakes, according to the Decree ‘On Measures to improve the environmental situation of Zigh lake’ of the President of the Republic Ilham Aliyev dated 15 October, 2014, realization of works for rehabilitation of the aforementioned lake has started.

Forests of the Republic of Azerbaijan

The area of the world's forest cover is 4 milliard ha. Of this 809 million ha falls in the share of Russian Federation, 478 million square km belongs to Brazil, 310 million ha pertains to Canada and 303 million ha is in USA

Environmental history of the development

Live the life of the organisms that depend on external environment, the nature of thedissemination of information about animals and plants are still found in BC in past times.